[Magazine] The Fuel Cell Review. Volume 1. Issue 4

This layer has a different crystalline structure and composition from both Pd and ZrO2. "Interface Reactions during Metal/Ceramic Diffusion Bonding", Microelectronics International, Vol. 7 Issue: 2, pp, dispthrougpikechild.cf eb

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The response: The plan was generally met with praise, but as ever, the devil is in the details. In addition, accurately measuring forest offsets, which the company will need to balance out emissions from plane flights and other carbon-heavy aspects of its operations, is notoriously difficult.

More than 1, workers there still plan to walk out tomorrow.

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The company says it has been carbon neutral since , but in practice it still relies on polluting sources to function. This new commitment should help to reduce that dependency. Workers at Google and Microsoft have also pledged to participate in the climate strikes on Friday. Charlotte Jee. Advances in longevity medicine may be coming.

What are the challenges and opportunities of a world in which people live longer and healthier lives? Quantum supremacy. Google has enlisted NASA to help it prove quantum supremacy within months. Explainer: What is a quantum computer? Humans and Technology Sep The ionic liquid in his fuel cell is goopy, 10 times more viscous than water.


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Protons have to slog their way to the cathode, slowing the rate of ammonia production. To speed things up, MacFarlane and his colleagues are toying with their ionic liquids. But the production rate still needs to rise by orders of magnitude before his cells can meet targets, set for the field by the U. Into the narrow gap between the tubes flows H 2 , which could be made by a solar- or wind-powered electrolyzer.

Other approaches are in the works. Made from ceramics to withstand high operating temperatures, the cell can synthesize ammonia at record rates—about times faster than MacFarlane's fuel cell.

Ammonia—a renewable fuel made from sun, air, and water—could power the globe without carbon

Like Giddey's membrane reactors, the ceramic fuel cells sacrifice some efficiency for output. Even so, O'Hayre says, they still need to improve production rates by another factor of 70 to meet the DOE targets. Whether any of those approaches will wind up being both efficient and fast is still unknown. Grigorii Soloveichik, a manager in Washington, D.

However distant, the prospect of Asia-bound tankers, full of green Australian ammonia, raises the next question.


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The simplest option, Dolan says, is to use the green ammonia as fertilizer, like today's ammonia but without the carbon penalty. Beyond that, ammonia could be converted into electricity in a power plant customized to burn ammonia, or in a traditional fuel cell, as the South Australia plant plans to do. But currently, ammonia's highest value is as a rich source of hydrogen, used to power fuel cell vehicles. In the United States, fuel cell cars seem all but dead, vanquished by battery-powered vehicles. But Japan is still backing fuel cells heavily. Today the country has only about fuel cell vehicles on the road.


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But by Japanese officials expect , And the nation is eyeing ammonia as a way to fuel them. Converting hydrogen into ammonia only to convert it back again might seem strange. The energy penalty of converting the hydrogen to ammonia and back is roughly the same as chilling hydrogen, Dolan says—and because far more infrastructure already exists for handling and transporting ammonia, he says, ammonia is the safer bet.

That last step—stripping hydrogen off ammonia molecules—is what Dolan and his colleagues are working on. In a cavernous metal warehouse on the CSIRO campus that has long been used to study coal combustion, two of Dolan's colleagues are assembling a 2-meter-tall reactor that is dwarfed by a nearby coal reactor. When switched on, the reactor will "crack" ammonia into its two constituents: H 2 , to be gathered up for sale, and N 2 , to waft back into the air.

That reactor is basically a larger version of Giddey's membrane reactor, operating in reverse. Only here, gaseous ammonia is piped into the space between two concentric metal tubes.

A green way to make ammonia

Heat, pressure, and metal catalysts break apart ammonia molecules and push hydrogen atoms toward the tube's hollow core, where they combine to make H 2 that's sucked out and stored. Ultimately, Dolan says, the reactor will produce 15 kilograms per day of Next month, he plans to demonstrate the reactor to automakers, using it to fill tanks in a Toyota Mirai and Hyundai Nexo, two fuel cell cars.

He says his team is in late-stage discussions with a company to build a commercial pilot plant around the technology. Japan, Singapore, and South Korea have all begun discussions with Australian officials about setting up ports for importing renewably produced hydrogen or ammonia. Cooper knows how he wants it to end. Over coffee on a rainy morning in Sydney, he describes his futuristic vision for renewable ammonia. When he squints, he can see, maybe 30 years down the road, Australia's coast dotted with supertankers, docked at offshore rigs.

But they wouldn't be filling up with oil. Seafloor powerlines would carry renewable electricity to the rigs from wind and solar farms on shore.

On board, one device would use the electricity to desalinate seawater and pass the fresh water to electrolyzers to produce hydrogen. Another device would filter nitrogen from the sky. Reverse fuel cells would knit the two together into ammonia for loading on the tankers—a bounty of energy from the sun, air, and sea. It's the dream that nuclear fusion never reached, he says: inexhaustible carbon-free power, only this time from ammonia.

By Jeffrey Mervis Sep. By Jocelyn Kaiser Sep. By Meredith Wadman Sep. All rights Reserved. But the factories emit vast amounts of carbon dioxide CO 2. Gentler reactions A reverse fuel cell uses renewable electricity to drive a chemical reaction that makes ammonia. The reaction is efficient, but slow. To market Ammonia is more than fertilizer. The gas liquefies easily under light pressure and chilling, and can be transported to power plants to generate carbon-free electricity.

Beyond fossil fuel—driven nitrogen transformations. Got a tip? How to contact the news team. Science Insider.

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What kind of researcher did sex offender Jeffrey Epstein like to fund? How do fish-cleaning shrimp avoid becoming meals? They do a little dance By Eva Frederick Sep.