Students are expected to have a basic background on airports, i. This could have been easily achieved with any course during the Bachelor's Degree. Competences and skills that will be acquired and learning results. C2 Understand the characteristics of a master plan for an airport and the ability to write it : a study of the current situation physical, socio-economic analysis C3 Understand the characteristics of a master plan for an airport and the ability to write it : predicting traffic demand C4 Understand the characteristics of a master plan for an airport and the ability to write it : determine infrastructure needs at different time horizons.
CA5 Meet the administrative process for dealing with environmental impact studies , project writing and execution of works in Spain and international examples CA6: Identify the main sources of income for the airport aeronautical and non-aeronautical revenues , understand their dynamics and be able to forecast their behaviour based on the operational drivers. CA7 know the technical conditions that form a heliport CA8 Know the different methods of managing the potential demand.
Understand the system of IATA slot allocation CA9: Identify the main sources of cost for the airport, understand their dynamics and be able to forecast their behaviour based on the operational drivers. To evaluate the influence of economic and institutional aspects in airport development. Description of contents: programme. Financing basics leverage, cost of debt, cost of equity c.
Traffic forecasting b. Aeronautical Revenues c. Non aeronautical Revenues d. Opex e. Airside Design i. Runway ii. Taxiways iii. Aprons iv. In poor weather, pilots will use an instrument landing system ILS to find the runway and fly the correct approach, even if they cannot see the ground.
The number of instrument approaches based on the use of the Global Positioning System GPS is rapidly increasing and may eventually become the primary means for instrument landings.
Larger airports sometimes offer precision approach radar PAR , but these systems are more common at military air bases than civilian airports. The aircraft's horizontal and vertical movement is tracked via radar, and the controller tells the pilot his position relative to the approach slope. Once the pilots can see the runway lights, they may continue with a visual landing.
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Airport guidance signs provide direction and information to taxiing aircraft and airport vehicles. Smaller aerodromes may have few or no signs, relying instead on diagrams and charts. Many airports have lighting that help guide planes using the runways and taxiways at night or in rain or fog.
On runways, green lights indicate the beginning of the runway for landing, while red lights indicate the end of the runway. Runway edge lighting consists of white lights spaced out on both sides of the runway, indicating the edge. Some airports have more complicated lighting on the runways including lights that run down the centerline of the runway and lights that help indicate the approach an approach lighting system , or ALS.
Low-traffic airports may use pilot controlled lighting to save electricity and staffing costs.
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Along taxiways, blue lights indicate the taxiway's edge, and some airports have embedded green lights that indicate the centerline. Weather observations at the airport are crucial to safe takeoffs and landings. Planes take-off and land into the wind in order to achieve maximum performance. Because pilots need instantaneous information during landing, a windsock can also be kept in view of the runway. Aviation windsocks are made with lightweight material, withstand strong winds and some are lit up after dark or in foggy weather.
Because visibility of windsocks is limited, often multiple glow-orange windsocks are placed on both sides of the runway. Most airports have groundcrew handling the loading and unloading of passengers, crew, baggage and other services. The length of time an aircraft remains on the ground in between consecutive flights is known as " turnaround time ". Airlines pay great attention to minimizing turnaround times in an effort to keep aircraft utilization flying time high, with times scheduled as low as 25 minutes for jet aircraft operated by low-cost carriers on narrow-body aircraft.
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Like industrial equipment or facility management, airports require tailor-made maintenance management due to their complexity. With many tangible assets spread over a large area in different environments, these infrastructures must therefore effectively monitor these assets and store spare parts in order to maintain them at an optimal level of service. To manage these airport assets, several solutions are competing for the market: CMMS computerized maintenance management system predominate, and mainly enable a company's maintenance activity to be monitored, planned, recorded and rationalized.
Aviation safety is an important concern in the operation of an airport, and almost every airfield includes equipment and procedures for handling emergency situations. Airport crash tender crews are equipped for dealing with airfield accidents , crew and passenger extractions, and the hazards of highly flammable aviation fuel. The crews are also trained to deal with situations such as bomb threats , hijacking , and terrorist activities.
Hazards to aircraft include debris, nesting birds , and reduced friction levels due to environmental conditions such as ice , snow , or rain. Part of runway maintenance is airfield rubber removal which helps maintain friction levels. The fields must be kept clear of debris using cleaning equipment so that loose material does not become a projectile and enter an engine duct see foreign object damage. In adverse weather conditions, ice and snow clearing equipment can be used to improve traction on the landing strip.
For waiting aircraft, equipment is used to spray special deicing fluids on the wings. Many airports are built near open fields or wetlands. These tend to attract bird populations, which can pose a hazard to aircraft in the form of bird strikes. Airport crews often need to discourage birds from taking up residence. Some airports are located next to parks, golf courses, or other low-density uses of land.
Other airports are located near densely populated urban or suburban areas. An airport can have areas where collisions between aircraft on the ground tend to occur. Records are kept of any incursions where aircraft or vehicles are in an inappropriate location, allowing these "hot spots" to be identified. These locations then undergo special attention by transportation authorities such as the FAA in the US and airport administrators.
During the s, a phenomenon known as microburst became a growing concern due to aircraft accidents caused by microburst wind shear , such as Delta Air Lines Flight Microburst radar was developed as an aid to safety during landing, giving two to five minutes' warning to aircraft in the vicinity of the field of a microburst event. Some airfields now have a special surface known as soft concrete at the end of the runway stopway or blastpad that behaves somewhat like styrofoam , bringing the plane to a relatively rapid halt as the material disintegrates.
These surfaces are useful when the runway is located next to a body of water or other hazard, and prevent the planes from overrunning the end of the field. Airports often have on-site firefighters to respond to emergencies. These use specialized vehicles, known as airport crash tenders.
Aircraft noise is a major cause of noise disturbance to residents living near airports. Sleep can be affected if the airports operate night and early morning flights. Aircraft noise not only occurs from take-off and landings, but also ground operations including maintenance and testing of aircraft. Noise can have other noise health effects.
Other noise and environmental concerns are vehicle traffic causing noise and pollution on roads leading the airport. The construction of new airports or addition of runways to existing airports, is often resisted by local residents because of the effect on countryside, historical sites, local flora and fauna.
Due to the risk of collision between birds and aircraft, large airports undertake population control programs where they frighten or shoot birds. The construction of airports has been known to change local weather patterns. For example, because they often flatten out large areas, they can be susceptible to fog in areas where fog rarely forms. In addition, they generally replace trees and grass with pavement, they often change drainage patterns in agricultural areas, leading to more flooding , run-off and erosion in the surrounding land.
Some of the airport administrations prepare and publish annual environmental reports in order to show how they consider these environmental concerns in airport management issues and how they protect environment from airport operations. These reports contain all environmental protection measures performed by airport administration in terms of water, air, soil and noise pollution, resource conservation and protection of natural life around the airport.
A growing number of airports are installing solar photovoltaic arrays to offset their electricity use. The world's first airport to be fully powered by solar energy is located at Kochi , India. Another airport known for considering environmental parameters is the Seymour Airport at Galapagos Islands. An airbase, sometimes referred to as an air station or airfield , provides basing and support of military aircraft. Some airbases, known as military airports , provide facilities similar to their civilian counterparts.
Some airbases are co-located with civilian airports, sharing the same ATC facilities, runways, taxiways and emergency services, but with separate terminals, parking areas and hangars.
Vision & Mission
An aircraft carrier is a warship that functions as a mobile airbase. Aircraft carriers allow a naval force to project air power without having to depend on local bases for land-based aircraft. After their development in World War I, aircraft carriers replaced the battleship as the centrepiece of a modern fleet during World War II. Most airport names include the location. Many airport names honour a public figure , commonly a politician e.
Kennedy International Airport , a monarch e.